The image above is from the collection of Minstrel Songs published in 1882. Skimming through the book, one could recognize the way in which music manifests the culture of the time and place it was created. The lyrics of the songs are especially racist, though the use of stereotyped characters including Jim Crow and Dandy Jim. These characters are often portrayed as unintelligent, violent, hypersexual, and lazy. For instance, in the song “Jump Jim Crow”, Jim Crow, with a stereotypical “black” dialect, is portrayed eating an alligator. Further, they were often exclusively performed by white men using black-face. I also noticed that these minstrel songs were mostly repetitive and simple. This is arguably because such songs gain more popularity than those that are more complex and harder to sing along to. However, I also believe that the simplicity of the score reinforces its depiction of African Americans being unintelligent. These songs written way before Emancipation, reflect how African Americans were viewed in America back then. Minstrel shows were one of the few theatrical media where the mass was able to learn about the cultures of African Americans. Hence, the way these songs perpetuated these stereotypes show how music not only reflect culture but reinforces it.